Making Energy from Marine Debris

Every year marine species, from lobsters and fish to sea lions and birds, become trapped or entangled in lost, abandoned or discarded fishing gear. This “derelict gear” continues to capture fish and wildlife while at sea, even if no fishermen retrieves the catch.

The Fishing for Energy partnership works to address this problem in two ways: by providing commercial fishermen with no-cost opportunities to dispose of derelict and retired fishing gear, and by offering grant support for direct removal and assessment efforts.

Fishing for Energy

Through March 2016, the Fishing for Energy partnership has provided removal services at 48 ports in 10 states, collecting over 3 million pounds of fishing gear. Gear collected at the ports is first sorted at Schnitzer Steel Industries for metals recycling, and the remaining non-recyclable material is converted into energy at Covanta Energy locations.

Fishing for Energy

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Fertilizer Use Creates Toxic Cocktail

An estimated 9 to 10 percent of Wisconsin wells have tested over safe limits for nitrate.

Studies have estimated that 90% of nitrate in groundwater comes from spreading of synthetic fertilizers and dairy manure on farm fields, with most of the remainder from septic systems.

Nitrate behaves differently. Relatively little lingers near roots where it can be absorbed. Water washes it down into shallow groundwater that is the source of drinking water for one-quarter of Wisconsin residents.

Fertilizer Spreader

Legumes and alfalfa, take up nitrogen before it can reach groundwater, but are not as profitable as corn. When prices rise for corn, which requires heavy applications of nitrogen-based fertilizer, farmers quickly convert acreage and boost spreading. Wisconsin farmers applied over 200 million pounds of nitrogen in excess of UW-Extension recommendations.

Not only does the fertilizer create toxic drinking water, but the phosphorus in fertilizer and manure contributes to abnormal algae growth in lakes and streams when it runs off the land with rain and snowmelt.

Toxic Drinking Water

Drinking water contaminated with more than 10 milligrams per liter of nitrate poses acute risks to infants and women who are pregnant, a possible risk to fetuses in early stages of pregnancy, and a longer-term risk of serious disease in adults.

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Does Climate Change Contribute to Violence and War?

The line from drought to war is not nearly as straightforward, though on the surface it doesn’t seem to involve any leaps of faith. It makes sense that a severe drought would lead to massive crop failure, and that in a country heavily dependent on agriculture the results would be disastrous.

Drought Stricken Land

The drought lasted several years and forced hundreds of thousands of poor farmers off their lands and into cities that were already overcrowded by refugees (1 million or so, by most accounts) from the war in neighboring Iraq.

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However, the drought alone may not have been what forced the farmers from their land. The cancellation of diesel and fertilizer subsidies also had a crippling effect on the farmers. Political, economic and technological forces at work in the modern world also play a major role in economical collapse.

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Plastic in the Food Chain

Despite the much-touted health benefits of fish, consumers may be getting more than just lean protein in their servings of seafood. Researchers have found that around a quarter of the fish in markets in Indonesia and California contained plastic or fibrous material in their gut. This study is one of the first to make a direct link between plastic and the food which end up on the plates of consumers.

Fish MarketWe already know that eating fish comes with risks of ingesting metals like mercury and lead, or pesticides like DDT. Scientists don’t currently know whether or what amount of plastics in fish poses a threat to human safety. They do know, however, that plastics are associated with a cocktail of chemicals, some of which are carcinogenic, and some of which disrupt our hormone system. Once they enter the ocean, plastics can also become a sponge for other contaminants like pesticides and industrial chemicals.

According to PHY ORGS the researchers emphasize that the debris are found in the animals’ guts. That suggests people are likely to ingest the debris only if the animal is eaten whole, like sardines and anchovies. The team is still studying whether chemicals in the material can transfer into the meat.

The presence of tiny plastic particles, or microplastics, is a growing problem worldwide. A team of scientists estimated that eight million metric tons of plastic waste enters the world’s oceans each year, and predicted that that number will increase over the next decade.

Reducing plastics in the ocean will require a concerted, multi-pronged effort and interventions might include banning plastic microbeads in personal care products, working with big plastic producers to search for alternative materials, or even possibly putting fiber filters on washing machines.

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Indonesia Debris

Where Have All the Boys Gone?

In species from alligators to humans, males are being born less frequently than they were before.  Environmental experts are examining the link between man-made chemicals and their role as endocrine disruptors.

Exposure to phthalates, a common class of petrochemicals, can happen through air, water or food.  They are contained in cosmetics, cleaning products and consumer goods from wall paper to toys.  Some types of phthalates are not only carcinogens, but they are also known endocrine disruptors.  Glyphosate, one of the most common and highly used herbicides is found in trace amounts in nearly every food item that is made from genetically modified crops.  This endocrine disruptor is especially toxic to human cells in vitro.

Consumer Goods
Sperm counts worldwide have been cut in half, male infertility has increased, and testicular cancer rates have doubled.  These endocrine disruptors interfere with male hormonal system and are playing have havoc with the basic building blocks of male sexual development.

Many central Florida lakes are heavily polluted with a mixture of pesticides, nutrients and fertilizer – many chemicals are old chemicals like DDT that are persistent.  Scientists studying alligators in central Florida have found evidence that pesticides have the ability to alter the development of testes as well as lower the testosterone levels of the males similar to those of females.  Sexual organs of male alligators nesting in these lakes are 1/3 their normal size and reproduction rate is 90% below average.Baby AlligatorFor several weeks after conception the embryo is neither male nor female.  Sex hormones determine whether the fetus will be a boy or a girl.  In the 7th week of pregnancy the male reproductive tract begins developing.  Chemical exposure is likely behind a 200% increase in male genital birth defects.  After birth the infant is further exposed to chemicals in mother’s milk.  Blood and urine samples show that contaminates are not only in the child at birth, but they stay in the child.

6a00d8341c74da53ef01347faa4161970c-piThe falling male birthrate is a global phenomenon.  There are 20 heavily industrialized nations where male births have mysteriously declined.  Since 1970 this has added up to almost 3,000,000 fewer baby boys.   Virtually all of the products linked to male reproductive problems are made from petroleum and of the 80,000 chemicals in use 85% have never undergone testing for the impact on the human body.

Synthetic chemicals may be the threat linked to the survival of our species.

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Oregon Food Processor Wants To Turn Invasive Carp into Organic Fertilizer

Introduced to Malheur Lake as early as the 1920s, likely as a food source for people living in the arid region, the invasive carp have now taken over the lake.

Invasive CarpHistorically, Malheur Lake was utilized by up to 35% of the Pacific Flyway’s canvasback population, was the second most important redhead production site in the West, and at its peak produced, over 100,000 ducklings annually. Currently the refuge has only 5-10 percent of the productive bird habitat it provided before carp were introduced.

Malheur_Lake_(Harney_County,_Oregon_scenic_images)_(harDA0018a)

The estimated carp population in the refuge has grown into the millions. The carp sift through the mud searching for insects and aquatic plants to eat; uprooting plants and creating silt plumes in the process. Malheur Lake is void of the plants that provide food, shelter, and nesting grounds for waterfowl and other migratory birds.
Chemical treatments, barriers and traps, and water management have been used in an attempt to eradicate the carp. Unfortunately they only resulted in very short term habitat improvements, and the carp continue to return.
Malheur National Wildlife Refuge has entered into an agreement with Silver Sage Fisheries and Nutrient Company to catch and process invasive carp. The company would eventually like to use the carp as a food product or fish oil, but it currently has its sights set on turning them into fertilizer.

During a trial using fishing nets, fishermen caught more than 40,000 pounds of carp. The test project is expected to cost $500,000 the first year. The carp removed from the Lake will be processed into organic fertilizer for application on nearby organic croplands.

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DO NOT FEED THE DUCKS!

The sun is shining. The temperatures are rising. A trip to the park is imminent. All of the end pieces of bread saved during the long winter is gathered and ready for the trip. Strolling along the water’s edge the ducks are just waiting to receive some of the bounty, they are so used to being thrown scraps that they follow me to an empty bench where I sit and quickly become their favorite visitor as crumb after crumb is tossed.

It is just amazing to watch the birds run from crumb to crumb trying to get as much as they can. I smile. There is something captivating about feeding wildlife.

Feeding the ducksOf course, until now I had not realized the harm I may actually be causing. Those “wild” ducks shouldn’t be following me around; that is unnatural behavior – they should fear me. The food I am tossing to them is low in protein and are very poor substitutes for natural foods such as aquatic plants, natural grains, and invertebrates.

Angel WingThis artificial feeding causes inbreeding, delayed migration, overcrowding, disease, deformity and water pollution. Some parks maintain a strict “no feeding” area to watch the birds while some places still offer such an activity. The key to feeding the ducks properly is to provide food that is nutritious to waterfowl such as special duck pellets or seedless grapes cut in half, shredded kale, Swiss chard or romaine lettuce, and grains, including wheat, barley and oats. These are all healthy food sources that will appeal to most waterfowl.

Of course it is not just about the birds. Water pollution is a big issue in regards to feeding the ducks. Decomposing bread creates bacteria and attracts vermin, especially rats, whose urine transmits Weil’s disease, which can be deadly to people. Rotting bread exacerbates naturally occurring surface algae – which can give off toxins damaging to fish populations and create a stench for humans – by releasing more nitrates and phosphates. It also denies sunlight to underwater plants. And the bread eaten by birds creates more feces, which has the same effect.

Do Not Feed the DucksFeeding birds is something that people have done for generations, but now, there needs to be more concern about doing it to protect the birds and the environment.

Learn About Angel Wing

Where Does All the Road Salt Come From?

In 2013 U.S. officials applied about 17 million tons of salt to roads. Salt lowers the freezing temperature of water and thus melts street-clogging snow and ice. But its public safety benefits do come with some ecological drawbacks.

Road Salt

Salt not only damages metal and concrete, it contaminates drinking water, kills vegetation, and accumulates in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and groundwater, harming aquatic plants and animals.  As much as 70% of salt spread on roadways stays within the watershed.

Now that we know where the salt goes, where does it come from?

The U.S. is the second-largest road salt producer worldwide after China, but we also import a good deal of the salt it uses to coat its streets. At 12 million tons per year, America is the biggest salt importer in the world. Most salt imports come from Canada and Chile.

Former Salt Mine in Remlingen, Germany

Former Salt Mine in Remlingen, Germany

Rock salt is formed in the ocean.  The chlorine coming from the volcanoes at the bottom of the ocean mixes with the sodium washing off the continents with rainwater to create salt.  There is a lot of salt in the oceans, but it is only about 3½% of the worlds salt supply.   Areas with thick salt deposits was probably one where an ocean was, but has since evaporated.

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Algae Virus Found in Humans

There are more microorganisms in and on a “person” than there are “human cells.” Along with a few pounds of bacteria — trillions of microbes — an even larger number of viruses live in and on the human body. Some of which change the way we think and feel, and even the way we interact with others.

20080627TaihuBloomA group of scientists from Johns Hopkins and the University of Nebraska have discovered a new virus that is living in the mouths and throats of people participating in a study. While in itself not so noteworthy, but the fact that it was thought that it could only affect algae makes it interesting.

While conducting a separate experiment, the scientists found the virus living in 40% of a small number of people tested. The virus, called ATCV-1, is a chlorovirus, a family of viruses that infect plants. This virus affects algae in lakes all over the world. As far as researchers knew before this, viruses like this very rarely cross from one kingdom like plants to another, like animals. And even when they do, it’s more likely that they would go from plants to some type of invertebrate, not all the way to a complex animal like a human.

sn-virusH

The original study included cognitive tests; the scientists compared the data and saw that people with the virus living in their throats processed visual information about 10% slower than people without the virus. To further test the virus, mice were injected with ATCV-1 and took 10% longer to navigate a maze and spent 20% less time exploring new environments. The infected mice also showed more than 1,000 gene changes in the parts of the brain that are usually considered essential for memory and learning.

Mouse-mazeWhile humans cannot be tested for gene mutations, it does raise questions as to the affect algae has on humans and animals.

Interesting note: the group of people tested was from Baltimore.

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Manomin – Wisconsin’s Wild Rice

Wild rice is an annual aquatic grass that produces seed that is a delicious and nutritious source of food for wildlife and people. Harvested in the early autumn, wild rice was an immensely important commodity to Native Americans, particularly the Ojibwe and Menominee, who lived in the areas where it grew abundantly. The Menominee even took their name from the Indian word for wild rice, manomin, and were often referred to as the Wild Rice People by Europeans.

Botanically, wild rice differs from common rice, and is actually a cereal grass that grows in shallow lakes and streams, ripening in late summer. While the range of wild rice stretches from Manitoba to Florida, the most prolific stands are located in the upper Great Lakes of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Today Wisconsin has seventy major rice fields in thirteen counties. The grain usually begins to ripen in sections of the Wolf and Wisconsin rivers before lakeside areas are ready to be harvested. Wild Rice

Only Wisconsin residents may harvest wild rice in the state and must purchase and possess a wild rice harvesting license.    Harvesters are limited to gathering wild rice in boats no longer than seventeen feet and no wider than 38 inches that must be propelled by muscular power using paddles or push poles. The grain is still harvested by hand using wooden sticks (flails) that bend the tall stalks over the canoe. As the seed heads are tapped, some rice falls in the canoe and some in the water to seed the bed for future years. The flails must be rounded wooden rods or sticks no more than 38 inches long and hand-operated. Harvesting should be done gently, so that the stalks and beds can be harvested again as more rice matures.

Many of the large wild rice beds in Wisconsin have been lost due to pollution, exotic species, large boat wakes and especially changes in water levels.  Dams erected many miles away can also affect the harvest, for wild rice grows in the shallow parts of lakes and streams, maturing best if a fairly constant water level is maintained. The primary method of wild rice lake management is by controlling water levels on the lakes by operating water control structures (dams), ditch maintenance, and beaver dam management.  Aquarius Systems’ equipment is also used to help maintain the wild rice by removing aquatic vegetation and helping to restore the flow of water.

Aquarius Systems Swamp Devil

Aquatic Vegetation Cutter

An aquatic vegetation cutter (AVC) better known as a Swamp Devil® effortlessly plow through bogs, water hyacinth, cattails, small trees, tulle, tussocks and other stubborn growth.  In the process it also carves through the subsoil creating an open water channel up to three feet deep and eight feet wide, allowing the water to once again flow freely.

Learn More about Wisconsin Wild Rice